Food residue and yard trimmings make up nearly one-quarter of all municipal solid waste in the U.S., a large amount that can be useful as composted organic waste. In 2006, one-third of all food residue and yard trimmings (8 percent of total MSW) were recovered through composting.

Compost is a rich organic material that can be used to supplement soil for growing plants by providing additional nutrients and minerals. The process can be natural, through the ordinary process of biological decomposition, or created by combining organic wastes with other materials in order to accelerate breakdown. The composting process, unlike natural decomposition, can produce temperatures that will destroy pathogens and stabilize the material.

There was a time when individual households and portions of the public sector led the way in composting. It has since expanded into the private sector as demand for products, in the form of landscaping mulch and high-grade compost, continues to grow at the retail level. In the U.S., individual states are responsible for regulating composting facilities, although requirements vary.